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  • Coffee is the second most traded product in the world after petroleum. World wide coffee production tips the scales at about 6 million metric tonnes.
  • The word coffee has its origins in an Arabic word Qahwah meaning wine.
  • Coffee berries where first cultivated in what is now known as Yemen.
  • Coffee is the most popular drink worldwide with almost 2 billion cups consumed everyday.
  • Cappuccino is named for the resemblance of its color to the robes of the monks of the Capuchin order.
  • In 1901 the first soluble instant coffee is invented by Japanese-American chemist Satori Kato of Chicago.
  • It takes five years for a coffee tree to reach maturity. The average yield from one tree is the equivalent of one roasted pound of coffee.
  • It takes 42 beans to make an espresso.
  • Raw cofffee beans, soaked in water and spices, are chewed like candies in many parts of Africa.
  • In Greece and Turkey, almost always the elderly were served the first coffee.
  • In 1920s, prohibition goes into effect in the United States.Coffee sales boom.
  • People who buy coffee primarily at drive through windows on their way to work will spend as much as 45 hours a year waiting in line.
  • Italians do not drink espresso during meals. It is given considered to be a separate event and is given its own time.
  • Of the various botanical species of coffee trees in the world, only two are extensively cultivated commercially; Arabica and Robusta.
  • The USA is the world's largest consumer of coffee.
  • The average person who buys coffee outside the office to consume at work will spend the equivalent value of a round trip plane ticket to Florida every year.
  • Citrus flavors have been added to coffee for several hundred years.
  • Cappuccino is so named because of the drink's peak of foam which resembles to cowl of a Capuchin friars's habit.
  • The coffee tree produces its first full crop when it is about five (5) years old. But recent coffee breakthroughs in Cavite State University trimmed it down to just three (3) years.
  • The Europeans first added chocolate to their coffee in the 1600s.
  • Espresso, a recent innovation to prepare coffee, obtained its origins in 1822.
  • The first European coffee was sold in pharmacies in 1615 as a medical remedy.
  • The first coffee house in Europe opened in Venice in 1683, while coffee was available in Europe as early as 1608, mostly for the rich.
  • The expression “a cup of Joe” to denote coffee, was first coined during WWII, when American servicemen (G.I. Joe) were identified as big coffee drinkers.
  • The largest coffee-producing nation, Brazil, is responsible for 30 to 40 % of total world output.
  • In 1686, the first coffeehouse opens in Paris. Le Precope is still in business today.
  • By 1763, Venice alone had over 218 coffee houses.
  • In 1652, the first coffee house opens in England. By 1700, there were more than 2000 coffee house in London.
  • In 1668, coffee replaces beer as New York City's favorite breakfast drink.

The Origin of Coffee

History of Coffee
There are different versions of the legend of the discovery of coffee, one of which involves a goatherd called Kaldi. One day, while Kaldi's goats grazed, he noticed that they became restless after eating strange berries from a shrub. He tried the berries himself and he, too, became restless.

Another legend tells the story of the dervish Omar, known for his ability to heal the sick by prayer. Exiled from his hometown in Mocha to a cave in the dessert and nearing starvation, Omar chewed on berries from a shrub growing nearby. Finding the berries too bitter, he roasted them, hoping to improve the flavor. He decided the berries need boiling to soften them. He drank the resulting fragrant brew and was instantly revitalized, remaining in this state for several days.

In Arabia, monks usually hold long services at night and would fall asleep during prayers. The head priest then gave them coffee to keep them awake for prayers. In 1511, the ruler of Mecca thought that coffee caused drunkenness so he forbade drinking it.

In the 16th century, coffee drinking spread throughout Turkey and the first coffeehouse was opened in Constantinople.

When the Turkish army invaded Vienna in 1683, they brought along coffee with them. When they were defeated by the Polish, all their belongings were confiscated and burned. Part of the loot was coffee that got roasted in the process. This was how coffee started in Europe.

In 1660, a ship carrying coffee from Egypt arrived at the port in Marseilles, France. The famous French ruler Louis XIV received a Turkish sultan in his court who gave him coffee as a gift. The first French coffeehouse was opened soon after in Marseilles.

Up until the 17th century, all coffee came from Yemen in Africa. It was from the Port of Mocha (Al Mukha in Arabic) that the first coffee shipment came from. It was in this place across the Red Sea from Ethiopia (where coffee grew wild) that coffee was first cultivated and commercialized. Because these were the first beans that became popular in Europe, “Mocha” then became synonymous with coffee. Even when chocolate or cocoa was first tasted in Europe it tasted similar to coffee and was then also referred to as mocha.

Coffee was successfully planted and grown in the French colonies in the West Indies and in the Dutch colonies in the East Indies (now known as Indonesia). From Indonesia or Java, coffee may have traveled to the Philippines due to the proximity of Borneo and other Indonesian islands to the Mindanao provinces.

Another way that coffee may have reached the Philippines was through the Galleon Trade and through the Spanish friars who brought the coffees from Europe along with Christianity to the Philippine shores.

A marker in the Lipa, Batangas cathedral states that Spanish friars came around 1750 and it is also in Lipa and San Jose where the first coffee trees were planted.

In other parts of the world, the British also started to drink coffee in 1652. The first London coffeehouse was opened by a Greek named Pasqua Rosee who was brought back from Turkey as a servant to a London merchant. The merchant gave Pasqua the opportunity to open his own business.

By 1670 there were about 3,000 coffeehouses in England. The coffeehouses became meeting places where people talked, argued, and discussed politics. These coffeehouses also became known as “penny universities.”

In the early 18th century, coffee was brought to Brazil by a messenger of the ruler of Brazil who smuggled coffee seeds from French Guiana hidden in a bouquet of flowers. That time, no one was allowed to take coffee seeds out of the country but the messenger became friendly with the French governor's wife who put the seeds in the bouquet and was able to get some free seeds out of the country and into Brazil.

The coffee grew well in Brazil, and by mid-19th century, Brazil became the number one producer of coffee in the world, a title that the country still holds today.

The famous Boston Tea Party in 1774 made coffee the national drink of the United States of America. During the night of December 16, 1774, a group of American settlers threw 340 chests of tea into the Boston harbor as a protest to the British who slapped a high duty on tea imports. This event became known as the Boston Tea Party which led to the beginning of the American war on independence, after which the British no longer ruled in the northern part of the United States.

From that time on, no loyal American drank tea and the people drank coffee instead. Anyone drinking tea then was accused of being a traitor. This made America the world's biggest consumer of coffee, which is still true to this day. In the 1950s, instant coffee was also introduced in America making coffee drinking convenient and popular.

What is Coffee?

Coffee beans come from coffee cherries, which are the fruit of the coffee tree. Each cherry contains two beans. The coffee tree is an evergreen tropical shrub that only grows in countries that belong to the “Coffee Belt.” The belt wraps around the earth and is bound by the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. The Philippines belongs to this special area and is one of only fifty-three countries that produce coffee.

Coffee Producing Countries

Coffee grows in fifty-three countries circling the entire globe around the equator, thus the name “Coffee Belt”.

Costa Rica
Dominican Republic
El Salvador

Galapagos Islands
Ivory Coast
La Reunion

New Caledonia
Papua New Guinea
Puerto Rico
St. Helena

Sao Tome and Principe
South Africa

Coffee grown in different parts of the world have unique characteristics due to the different climates, temperatures, types of soil, and even the crops intercropped with coffee.

All varieties of the coffee plant require warmth and humidity and thrive in areas with generous amounts of precipitation and average temperatures.

Areas in the Philippines that are perfectly suitable for coffee include Bukidnon and Baguio for Arabica and Cavite and Batangas for Robusta, Excelsa, and Liberica (Barako).

Most of these areas incidentally are near volcanoes, Volcanic soil is best suited for coffee production.

Varieties of CoffeeThe Philippines is blessed with four varieties of coffee. To remember them, we use the term Real Coffee or R-E-A-L

R for Robusta
E for Excelsa
A for Arabica
L for Liberica

ROBUSTA ( Coffea conophora )

This variety grows in lower altitudes of about 300-500 meters above sea level. Robusta grows in Cavite, Batangas, and in lower elevations in Kalinga, Bulacan, and in the Visayas. This variety gives the syrupy quality to coffee and is best used for instant or soluble coffee. It is also used as a blender for other varieties for an extra caffeine punch. In other countries, 100 percent Robusta is sold as a “hyper-caffeinated” coffee. It can be processed using both the dry and the wet method. Washed Robustas (using the wet method) are popular with coffee experts. It is used mostly in specialty blends because of its strong character and higher caffeine content (about twice as much as Arabica).

EXCELSA ( Coffea excelsa )
Sometimes confused with Barako, this variety also grows in lower elevations. It has a distinct “lanka” or jackfruit taste and grows in most areas of Cavite where the locals prefer it as a blender for their Robusta and Barako varieties.

ARABICA ( Coffea arabica )
This variety grows in higher elevations, about 1,500 meters above sea level. Mostly found in mountain ranges in the Cordilleras, it grows near volcanoes and mountains in Mindanao.
The most traded coffee variety, Arabica is more expensive then Robusta, Excelsa, or Liberica because it has a smoother flavor. It originated from Ethiopia and has dark-green pointed leaves and oval fruits. It was first cultivated in Yemen but still grows wild in Ethiopia.

LIBERICA (Coffea liberica)
This variety is more popularly known as “Barako.” It has the biggest trunk, leaf size, beans, and cherries among the four varieties. It was originally grown only in Lipa, Batangas (making Batangas coffee famous around the world) since the 1800s but cultivation soon spread to nearby Cavite , Bataan , and down south to Basilan.

  Basic Espresso Concoctions

All over the world, many different beverages have been created simply by using espresso as the base drink and adding different ingredients. Milk is the most common complement of espresso. Below is a diagram espresso concoctions.

ESPRESSO + dollop of foam = MACHIATTO (marked)
ESPRESSO + steamed milk = CAFE LATTE
ESPRESSO + foamed chocolate = CAFE MOCHA

Different Coffee culture

For American, drinking coffee is like doing one game without rules, just do as they like. American thinks it scorn to the various daintily of making coffee of European. They drink coffee freely .At the same time coffee also get involved in their life and have so much influence that it can not be thought to be life if there is no coffee. It was said that the No. 13 Apollo that the first space shape taking the people to the moon happened do-or-die problem on the way back to earth, and at that time, the ground staff comfort that 3 cosmonaut by one sentence” come on, goluptious hot coffee is waiting for you.” No matter home, office, public place or coin machine, American almost stays with coffee at 24 hours one day. Thus they drink three first coffee of the world output, and USA is the country who consumed most coffee in the world.

Generally, American live a busy life, they are not like the people in Europe or Middle East who can enjoy life in easy way. They usually just have one bottle of Drip coffee from morning till night. Because of too much water and less coffee, it taste very light, many people criticize that American style coffee taste too bad. Actually, coffee liker still can taste the coffee flavor they like around America if they make a little more efforts. If we divide the Pure American style coffee into strong and weak style, American east shore like stronger than west shore and south like stronger than north.
For nation, South Europe and Latin people enjoy strong coffee than England, Germany and north Europe emigration.
Besides, although USA sells most instant coffee to other countries, there aren’t so many people drink instant coffee. Recently years, they pay more and more attention to the food health, and the market of the de-café become bigger and bigger, and the culture of drinking coffee without sugar also become more and more popular.

Turkey: Attractive Style

In ancient middle east, Coffee is like the legend in One Thousand and One Night that it is the veiled lady with many kinds of faces who is also helpful to close to the god and is the spring cleaning the sadness. Speak of coffee, we must mention the Middle east (Turkey )coffeebecause its original place was said to be in the far and mysterious Middle east land no matter under the theory of Christianism or Islam. Coffee was introduced to Turkey formally in the 1600s and began to be commercialization and spread to Europe quickly. People usually name this drinking way asTurkey coffee or Arab coffee which is popular in Greece, East Europe, Middle East and North Africa and so on. The method of making Turkey coffee is that coffee beans were roasted for the first time over open fires, and the roasted beans were crushed, and then boiled in water, creating a crude version of the beverage we enjoy today.
The local people drink coffee non-filtrated, so when pouring the dense coffee like thick soup in the cup, there is some sticky bubble on the surface and also the residue in the cup bottom. In Middle east, the host shows their most sincere respect by inviting someone to have coffee at their house, so the guest should praise the coffee , and also need to remember that can not drink water even when have residue in their mouth after drunk coffee, because it means that the coffee taste bad . Arab drink coffee leisurely and they also have some daintily way, just like the Chinese people have teas, they also light cense and also put some flavor when they drinking coffee. And the myriads of coffee tools are full of expression of Arabian nights. The sweet smelling is spread the full house when we drink one hot Middle east coffee with clove, legumina and cinnamon. That’s why the Arab praise it have something can attract people’s souls like muskiness

Italy: Ebullience

We should be careful about 2 things when we visit Italy, one is man, and the other is coffee. In Italy, coffee and man are the 2 things different in approach but equally satisfactory in result, so there is an old saying in Italy that”Man is like good coffee, strong and full of passion. Italy coffee whose English name is Espresso is very family with our people who like coffee recently years. This dense and fragrant black coffee with golden bubble floated on the surface is so dense and hot like the devil run away from the hell. It always make people get in its charming that we can not expresses in word, and can not forget it when we drink once. The feature of the Italy coffee is showed in its English name, only one word- quick. Making it quickly just need 10 seconds and also drinking it is quick because it is only about 2 or 3 mouths. Usually the first thing for Italy people after they got up is making one cup of coffee and they drink coffee all day, no matter girls or boys. There are many coffee shops named BAR here and there in the street, one cup need 4 hundred Lira which is about 10 RMB, providing people to drink it by standing.
Italian need drink about 20 cups of coffee one day on average. The bean used to make Italy coffee is the bean fried most in the world, and this is to go match with the special function----extracting the coffee immediately of Italy coffee maker. Because one cup Italy coffee only have 50cc and only need 6-8 grams, this kind of coffee do not hurt stomach and it even is helpful for assimilation although it looks like very dense. Italy coffee also has one kind of drinking way named Cappuccino which is added some milk. It use the Italy coffee maker’s steam over130℃ to make the milk became bubble and float it above the black coffee. Fresh milk is so pure and lovely that the Espresso devil became the sweet angel under its sprinkle.

Northern and Western Europe: Gentle and Intellect

Not like hot Italian people, nor like romantic French, the north and middle European drink coffee gently and sane just like their scrupulous nationality. European life and coffee connected with each other closely. Except the unique drinking way of Italy and French place, there is not so much difference in custom and flavor of coffee from Austria, Switzerland, Germany and some North European countries. They know golden mean so deeply and they like the middle dense flavor.

When making coffee at home, Middle and North European usually use the coffee maker with simple filter paper by hand washing and the Drip coffee maker which is normal in Taiwan. Actually, Paper Drip started from Middle Europe and was found by Miss Merita from Germany and spread around European country. But the Espresso is the main maker in Coffee house, because in these place there is a great demand about the coffee. The big difference between these countries’ coffee house and Taiwan ones is that they make the coffee, sugar and milk very clearly, and they make the different price for the black coffee and coffee with milk in their price list, even the quantity is the factor that they make the difference price. Some Middle European countries like Austria, Switzerland are famous for making nice dim sum. Of course, these different kinds of dim sum became an important part on the coffee table.

Recently years, people of 4 North European countries is always in the first 4 position in the world for their average coffee consume( over 1000cups one year/ person. It is very suitable to describe how much they love the coffee by one libretto in one of J.C.Bach’s Opera----- So wonderful coffee, more sweet than one thousand sweet kiss, more intoxicate than vintage wine

Asian: Sweet tradition

Almost one third of Chinese for example now consume coffee outside their home. As in many other countries, Asian coffee shops are more about the gathering of friends for a social event than about the coffee itself. In the Philippines, the coffee of choice is a lighter sweeter coffee, unlike that in many of the Western countries. The favorite coffee in Hong Kong, for example is cappuccino, preferred by about thirty percent of those who purchase ready to drink coffee outside the home. In second place is mocha, also a sweeter coffee preferred by one quarter of the coffee drinkers at coffee shops. Regular coffee comes in at 17 percent for the third place finish.
          In Indonesia, one of the major coffee exporting countries in the world has a strong and well-established coffee culture. Most of the fresh coffee is consumed by the older generation who has grown up using the product and enjoys the taste. The younger generation typically uses instant coffee for its benefits in helping one stay alert. Fortified coffee has made its way into the coffee culture in Asia by adding ginseng or more recently ginger to the regular coffee to attract the older generation. The seniors will drink the beverage for its health benefits even though the taste is less desirable.